China and eastern Himalayas in Asia


Temperate forests and taiga

Talkin' about takins

With horns like a wildebeest, a nose like a moose, a tail like a bear, and a body like a bison, the takin (rhymes with rockin') looks like a character from Dr. Seuss! This large, muscular, hoofed mammal is sometimes referred to as a goat antelope, because it has things in common with both goats and antelope. But the takin is most closely related to sheep and to the goat-like aoudad, or Barbary sheep, of North Africa.

Protection from the cold

Takins have some neat adaptations that help them stay warm and dry during the bitter cold of winter in the rugged Himalayan Mountains. A thick, secondary coat is grown to keep out the chill, which they shed for the summer. They also have a very noteworthy nose! The large, moose-like snout has big sinus cavities to warm up the air inhaled before it gets to the lungs. Without this adaptation, takins would lose a large amount of body heat just by breathing.

Yet another protection is their oily skin. Although takins have no skin glands, their skin secretes an oily, bitter-tasting substance that acts as a natural raincoat in storms and fog. Streaks of this oily stuff can be seen where takins rub up against the walls of their enclosures at the San Diego Zoo! Split hooves help takins move around easily in their rocky habitat. They also have an odor that smells like a strange combination of horse and musk. Both males and females have shiny black, crescent-shaped horns that grow from the center of their massive head and can reach up to 35 inches (90 centimeters) in length.

Takins, like giant pandas, are considered national treasures in China.
Takins at the San Diego Zoo have been known to jump 6-foot (1.8-meter) walls from a standing start.
The Mishmi takin is the national animal of Bhutan.
Sichuan takins eat at least 130 different species of plants.

The San Diego Zoo was the first to exhibit Sichuan takins in North America when we received a gift from China of two females in 1987 and the arrival of a male the following year. The first Sichuan takin born outside of China was born here in 1989. In addition to Sichuan takins, the Zoo also had a breeding herd of Mishmi takins for many years, and the first Mishmi takin born in the New World was born here in 1993. Most takins now living at other zoos in North America came from San Diego.

Our takin herd is temporarily off exhibit during construction near their regular exhibit area, at the Zoo’s Panda Trek. Takins and giant pandas share the same habitat in China.

Like the giant panda, the Sichuan takin is considered a national treasure in China and has the highest level of legal protection there. India, Bhutan, and China all have laws prohibiting takin hunting, but despite their size and defenses, local people hunt takins regularly for their meat, both within and outside protected areas. In fact, human hunters cause most takin deaths. Such poaching is hard to control. Many local people are unaware of the conservation laws that are in place to protect these animals, and in many of these remote areas, there is no enforcement of the laws. Overhunting has resulted in the disappearance of takins in some areas of their range, and recovery is slow.

But the main cause for their declining numbers is the loss of their habitat. Farming, mining, pasture burning, cane and bamboo cutting, and road construction have destroyed large areas of takin habitat. As human populations grow, they encroach on areas occupied by takins. Sometime these activities also fragment the remaining habitat, disrupting migration routes and dividing takin herds. Domestic livestock trample vegetation, compete for food, and transmit diseases to takins.

And a 2010 study of Mishmi takins in the eastern Himalayas suggests that these animals are especially vulnerable to climate change. Declining snowfall and melting glaciers may decrease the growth of alpine grassland and scrub. Ultimately, climate change could alter the existing mix of species in all takins’ habitat. China has given the takin full protection under Chinese law, and two reserves have been created for the protection of Sichuan takins.

San Diego Zoo Global is helping wild takin populations, too. We are one of five members of the Conservation Centers for Species Survival (C2S2), a group devoted to endangered species study, management, and recovery. Collectively, we have significant land holdings, specialized animal facilities, and scientific and management expertise with animals in managed care and in nature. To study the ecology and behavior of the Sichuan takin, C2S2 developed radio-telemetry techniques and fitted radio collars to eight wild takins in the forests of Tangjiahe Nature Reserve, providing information on the animals’ seasonal movements, preferred habitat, and natural behaviors. Such scientific knowledge is critical for developing a long-term conservation and management plan for the species.

The San Diego Zoo's breeding program for takins has been extremely successful, and a number of these offspring now make their home at other North American zoos. The work we do with takins is helping scientists better understand how to help this species in the wild; however, we still have much to learn about this odd-looking yet majestic goat antelope of Asia.